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  • Capítulo de livro
    The Ecology of Childhood
    Haddad L.; Nascimento M.L. (2007)
  • Capítulo de livro
    Acid rain in downtown São Paulo City, Brazil
    Santos M.A.D.; Illanes C.F.; Fornaro A.; Pedrotti J.J. (2007)
    During the period from July 2002 to June 2004, the chemical characteristics of the rainwater samples collected in downtown São Paulo were investigated. The analysis of 224 wet-only precipitation samples included pH and electrical conductivity, as well as major ions (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and carboxylic acids (acetic, formic and oxalic) using ion chromatography. The volume weighted mean, VWM, of the anions NO3 -,SO4 2- and Cl- was, respectively, 20.3, 12.1 and 10.7 μmol 1-1. Rainwater in São Paulo was acidic, with 55% of the samples exhibiting a pH below 5.6. The VWMof the free H+ was 6.27 μmol 1-1), corresponding to a pH of 5.20. Ammonia (NH3), determined as NH 4 + (VWM=32.8 μmol 1-1), was the main acidity neutralizing agent. Considering that the H+ ion is the only counter ion produced from the non-seasalt fraction of the dissociated anions, the contribution of each anion to the free acidity potential has the following profile: SO 4 2- (31.1%), NO 3 - (26.0%), CH3COO- (22.0%), Cl- (13.7%), HCOO- (5.4%) and C 2 O 4 2- (1.8%). The precipitation chemistry showed seasonal differences, with higher concentrations of ammonium and calcium during autumn and winter (dry period). The marine contribution was not significant, while the direct vehicular emission showed to be relevant in the ionic composition of precipitation. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
  • Capítulo de livro
    Overview of ISDB-T one-segment reception
    Bedicks G.; Akamine C. (2008)
    © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial (ISDB-T) was developed in Japan by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) in 1998.1 The ISDB-T provides audio, video, and multimedia services and integrates various kinds of digital contents, each of which may include high-definition TV (HDTV), multiprogram standard-definition TV (SDTV), and low-definition TV for portable reception and data (graphics, text, etc.). In Japan the ISDB-T was launched in 2003 for HDTV and SDTV, and in 2006 for portable reception. Also, in 2006, the Brazilian government adopted the International System for Digital Television (ISDTV), which uses the same modulation as ISDB-T. For both standards, portable reception, also called 1seg, means that the receiver can demodulate 428.57 KHz of the center of the broadcasting channel. This chapter describes the transmission system and the one-segment reception.
  • Capítulo de livro
    Professional Development of Higher School Educators
    Nicoletti Mizukami M.D.G.; Masetto M.T. (2008)
    © 2008 Sense Publishers.Although the current Brazilian backdrop demonstrates that investments in the elaboration, implementation and assessment of educational public policies concerning teacher education have been made, it can also be said that more emphasis has been given to the initial and continuing teacher education processes of elementary, medium and high school teachers.