Programa de Intervenção para Promoção de Autorregulação (PIPA): desenvolvimento e efetividade em crianças pré-escolares

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León, Camila Barbosa Riccardi
Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo
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Osório, Ana Alexandra Caldas
Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues
Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira
Distúrbios do Desenvolvimento
Self-regulation (SR) comprises the individual's ability to control / direct cognitive processes, emotions, and goal-directed behavior. There is evidence that this ability is critical to learning, bringing short- to long-term benefits in the school, family and social settings. The international literature has emphasized the development and research of programs promoting these skills in preschoolers, but national studies are still scarce. This research aimed to develop the Intervention Program to Promote SR (PIPA, acronym in Portuguese) and to investigate short and long-term effects on SR skills (executive functions - EF and emotional regulation - ER) comparing preschool children of the experimental group (EG) in relation to controls (CG). We emphasize that this is part of a broader multicenter project, which has included other investigations, such as PIPA’s effects on teachers’ level of stress and students’ theory of mind. The development of the PIPA went through 4 stages: 1. Survey of the literature, activities, selection and adaptation of them; 2. Creation of new, systematic description and allocation of activities in modules; 3. Validity of content by experts; 4. Recasting and closing final version. The final version consists of 63 activities, of which 33 were exclusively developed by PIPA (main focus in ER) and 30 were taken from the Intervention Program in Self-Regulation and Executive Functions (PIAFEx, acronym in Portuguese - main focus in EF). PIPA must be daily applied by teachers. A total of 189 children (56% boys), mean age 4.9 years (SD = 0.16) and 10 teachers from two municipal schools of early childhood education in São Paulo participated in the study. This study had 4 steps: pre-test (evaluation in EF and ER measures) and initial teacher training, intervention (EG composed by 5 teachers trained and supervised in the application of PIPA in the classroom for 6 months and CG remained with the regular school practices), post-test (re-evaluation), and follow-up after one year. The Columbia Mental Maturity Scale was used to evaluate intelligence, and the Semantic Stroop Test and the Regulation Task were used to evaluate inhibitory control (EF). For evaluation of behavioral problems, EF and ER levels, parents and teachers filled out the specific scales, as well as informed sociodemographic data. Ancovas were conducted with the group (EG x CG) as an inter-subject factor, time (pre-test x post-test, post-test x follow-up) as intra-subject factor, measures in each instrument as dependent variables and intelligence as covariant. In the case of scales, analyzes were only carried out when the informants were the same in different times (pre-and post-test; post-test and follow-up). Thus, one of the CG classes of school 1 was excluded from the scales’ Ancovas and t-tests were conducted for independent samples between subjects (EG x CG) at the follow-up. It was hypothesized that the children of the EG would perform better than the CG in the tests and in the scales answered by parents and teachers, who measured SR skills. Contrary to other evidence with PIPA itself and other SR promotion programs, we didn’t observe short and long-term significant effects for most of the SR skills measures used in preschool children in this thesis. Future studies could replicate PIPA considering the limitations and hypotheses discussed here.
regulação , prevenção , treinamento , desenvolvimento infantil
Assuntos Scopus
León, Camila Barbosa Riccardi. Programa de Intervenção para Promoção de Autorregulação (PIPA): desenvolvimento e efetividade em crianças pré-escolares. 2019. 133 f. Tese (Doutorado em Distúrbios do Desenvolvimento) - Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, 2019.