O processo de aprendizagem coletiva e o uso da tecnologia em agências de viagens: contribuições dos estudos baseados em prática e da etnometodologia

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Bispo, Marcelo de Souza
Godoy, Arilda Schmidt
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Brunstein, Janette
Bataglia, Walter
Costa, Benny Kramer
Kirschbaum, Charles
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The demands on organizations for innovation and change in order to survive in a hyper-competitive environment suggest new ways of thinking "what is" to learn and to know, that seems to go beyond what is available in books, textbooks, classrooms and companies training rooms. We must try to understand how people learn from each other in everyday life,from the social interactions that transcend the formal processes used by organizations. This effort requires looking at organizations as symbolic fields in which people live in constant interaction mediated by language building meaning to their everyday activities (HATCH;YANOW, 2003). According to this perspective it is possible to understand the organization as a place of learning and knowledge generation, permeated by negotiation and continued exchange among its members and artifacts, especially the technological ones, which share the same environment (BRUNI, 2005; BRUNI; GHERARDI; PAROLIN, 2007, SUCHMAN et al., 1999). Valtonen (2009) points out that micro and small tourism enterprises have a range of possibilities to be investigated and epistemological qualities that enable relevant research, unlike what occurs predominantly in the research on the Administration field, where such organizations are seen as displaying a "knowledge vacuum" or being unable to adopt efficient systems of knowledge management. In this sense Valtonen (2009) points out that small companies in the tourism sector contribute to a distinct way of knowledge generation,particularly when the focus is on a more practical knowledge. This research adopted as a guiding question how the process of collective learning of using information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, while labor practice in a travel agency occurs. The main objective of the research was to understand the process of collective learning of technology use as a practice in travel agencies. In this perspective, Practice-based Studies (PBS) is seen as an option to debate, discuss and understand the collective and nonformal learning processes in organizations (NICOLINI; GHERARDI; YANOW, 2003;GHERARDI, 2001, 2006). To Gherardi (2006) such an understanding allows working with the phenomena in a situated form, whereas the temporality and historicity have significant value to a better understanding of social worlds. Also according to the author, this way of thinking about organizations value what she regards as knowing-in-practice , i.e., that knowledge is situated as a social, human, material, aesthetic, emotional and ethical process.Ethnomethodology was used as an empirical research strategy for conducting this study which was carried out in three travel agencies belonging to the same company during a period of seven months. The main findings concern to how the use of technology as a practice influences the organizing, sales and management processes inside the researched company and the main conclusion is that collective learning is not the extrapolation of learning at the individual level
aprendizagem coletiva , estudos baseados em prática , etnometodologia , organizações , agências de viagens , collective learning , practice-based research, ethnomethodology , organizations , travel agencies