Política ambiental e governança climática: a contribuição paulista para a redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa na ação global do clima

Longuini, Mayara Ferrari
Pinto, Felipe Chiarello de Souza
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Bechara, Fábio Ramazzini
Rei, Fernando Cardozo Fernandes
Lorencini, Bruno César
Contipelli, Ernani de Paula
Direito Político e Econômico
The complexity of the challenges recently posed by climate change requires multi-sectoral and articulated efforts. Given that the main cause of climate change is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, the legal system needed to incorporate new standards to deal with such transformation of the planet. Therefore, the legal response has grown from the local, state level up to the transnational level. This thesis aims to present the legal framework related to climate change and analyze the climate policies of the State of São Paulo to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To do so, the discussion begins with an analysis of the cause of the problem, showing that science is certain of the relationship between human activities that emit greenhouse gases and climate change — with its present and future impacts — and then describes how emissions are regulated. In the context of climate policies, instruments vary from command and control standards to market instruments, such as the carbon market. The problem goes beyond borders, as greenhouse gases are mixed in the Earth's atmosphere, and no country alone will be able to limit the climate change process. Given this problem, this discussion transposes the appreciation of the local regulatory and political aspects and deepens in the climate governance, through reflections that evaluate how the state and non-state actors of São Paulo contribute to the actions of mitigation of the climatic changes. The State of São Paulo, which is Brazil's most industrialized state, took a leading role in the creation of its state policy on climate change in 2009. In turn, the private sector has been engaged in the proposed goals and contributed in several ways to the global efforts to promote the low-carbon economy. In order to evaluate the contribution of São Paulo in response to the climate changes, an analytical matrix was built based on three points: regulation and climate policies of the country and the State of São Paulo; the political-institutional structures for climate governance, involving public and private actors; and the international projection of subnational policies on climate change and its connection with internal and external policies. This analytical matrix was designed from theoretical studies and based on the hypothetical-deductive method. The results show that despite the efforts, the implementation of the existing policies and the integration at different levels of governance have not yet been consolidated. The existence of some governmental actions and others derived from the private sector which are related to the climate concern is relevant, mainly in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. Political responses at subnational and international levels seem to point to a convergence, encouraging the actors to move towards the establishment of stricter levels of compliance, since the implementation of the climate policies of the State of São Paulo can and should be strengthened to achieve the globally agreed target of reducing gas production and reducing the impacts of climate change.
mudanças climáticas , política ambiental , governança climática , atores subnacionais
LONGUINI, Mayara Ferrari. Política ambiental e governança climática: a contribuição paulista para a redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa na ação global do clima. 2019. 159 f. Tese (Direito Político e Econômico) - Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo.