Direct sulfur-containing compound speciation in crude oils and high-boiling fractions by APCI (+) FT-ICR mass spectrometry

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Analytical Methods
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Franco D.M.M.
Covas T.R.
Pereira R.C.L.
da Silva L.C.
Rangel M.D.
Simas R.C.
Dufrayer G.H.M.
Vaz B.G.
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© 2024 The Royal Society of Chemistry.In this study, we focus on advancing the methodology for detecting sulfur-containing compounds (SCCs) in crude oils and their derivatives. These compounds are critical for geochemical analysis, crude oil evaluation, and overcoming production and refining challenges. Although various analytical techniques exist, the precision and resolution power of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) stand out. However, the current methods for characterizing SCCs in petroleum products often lack standardization and tend to be complex and time-consuming. Our research introduces the use of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) as an efficient alternative. We employed a mixture of toluene and methanol (1 : 1 ratio) for APCI, which demonstrated superior performance in sulfur speciation compared to mixtures of toluene and acetonitrile. Our specified method showed high repeatability, with coefficients of variation reported between 5% and 14%. This method effectively covers a wide range of double bond equivalents (DBEs) from 1 to 25 and various carbon numbers, demonstrating notable repeatability and reproducibility. Compared to results from ESI post-S-methylation and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (APPI), APCI offers a more comprehensive analysis of sulfur compounds, presenting a broad spectrum of molecular formulae and extending across a vast range of carbon numbers and DBEs. Here, we demonstrate that APCI is a robust and efficient method for direct and extensive sulfur speciation in crude oil and its high-boiling fractions, marking a significant advancement over existing techniques. This methodological improvement opens new pathways for more accurate and efficient sulfur compound analysis in petroleum products.
Assuntos Scopus
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization , Carbon number , Double bonds , Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry , Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry , FT-ICR mass spectrometry , Geochemical analysis , Resolution power , Sulfur speciation , Sulphur containing compounds
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