65Zn2+ transport by isolated gill epithelial cells of the American lobster, Homarus americanus

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Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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Sa M.G.
Ahearn G.A.
Zanotto F.P.
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Gills are the first site of impact by metal ions in contaminated waters. Work on whole gill cells and metal uptake has not been reported before in crustaceans. In this study, gill filaments of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, were dissociated in physiological saline and separated into several cell types on a 30, 40, 50, and 80% sucrose gradient. Cells from each sucrose solution were separately resuspended in physiological saline and incubated in 65Zn2+ in order to assess the nature of metal uptake by each cell type. Characteristics of zinc accumulation by each kind of cell were investigated in the presence and absence of 10 mM calcium, variable NaCl concentrations and pH values, and 100 μM verapamil, nifedipine, and the calcium ionophore A23187. 65Zn2+ influxes were hyperbolic functions of zinc concentration (1-1,000 μM) and followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Calcium reduced both apparent zinc binding affinity (K m) and maximal transport velocity (J max) for 30% sucrose cells, but doubled the apparent maximal transport velocity for 80% sucrose cells. Results suggest that calcium, sodium, and protons enter gill epithelial cells by an endogenous broad-specificity cation channel and trans-stimulate metal uptake by a plasma membrane carrier system. Differences in zinc transport observed between gill epithelial cell types appear related to apparent affinity differences of the transporters in each kind of cell. Low affinity cells from 30% sucrose were inhibited by calcium, while high affinity cells from 80% sucrose were stimulated. 65Zn2+ transport was also studied by isolated, intact, gill filament tips. These intact gill fragments generally displayed the same transport properties as did cells from 80% sucrose and provided support for metal uptake processes being an apical phenomenon. A working model for zinc transport by lobster gill cells is presented. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
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