Toxicity of apolar and polar Lantana camara L. crude extracts in mice

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Research in Veterinary Science
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Bevilacqua A.H.V.
Suffredini I.B.
Romoff P.
Lago J.H.G.
Bernardi M.M.
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Lantana camara L, widely used in folk medicine, presents toxicity for farm animals. The acute poisoning effects of the apolar and polar L. camara L. extracts in mice were done. The percentage of death during 7days after treatment, the acute signs of toxicity as well as the general activity observed in open field were assessed. The extracts were administered by i.p. route at 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0g/kg. Animals were evaluated during the first 2h after the treatments to assess the acute signs of toxicity and daily observations were done for the presence of death. In the end of the experiment, at day 7, or immediately after death the animals had their organs removed, weighted and observed for macroscopic alterations. 1H NMR and TLC analysis suggest the presence of triterpenoids in the apolar phase but not in the polar phase. Results showed also that both extracts produced similar percentage of death, mainly after 2days of treatment; only the apolar extract presented a dose-dependent increased lethality. At necropsy, mice treated by both apolar and polar extracts were severely icteric, dehydrated and constipated, with hepatosis, showed congested heart and lung, and nephrosis; no skin lesions were shown. The main signs of toxicity revealed a decreased spontaneous general activity. In addition, it was observed a decreased duration of locomotion and animal rearing parallel to an increased immobility in the open field. The similarity of the signs related to the acute toxicity for both apolar and polar extracts suggested that the extracts have some of the active toxic principles in common. Data from open field behavior and spontaneous signs of toxicity suggest that the toxic principles have depressive properties on central nervous system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
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